The authoritative parenting style: An evidence-based guide (2023)

© 2010 – 2017 Gwen Dewar, Ph.D., all rights reserved

What is authoritative parenting?

The authoritative parenting style is an approach to child-rearing that combines warmth, sensitivity, and the setting of limits. Parents use positive reinforcement and reasoning to guide children. They avoid resorting to threats or punishments.

This approach is common in educated, middle class families, and linked with superior child outcomes throughout the world.

Kids raised by authoritative parents are more likely to become independent, self-reliant, socially accepted, academically successful, and well-behaved. They are also less likely to report depression and anxiety, and less likely to engage in antisocial behavior like delinquency and drug use.

And research suggests that having at least one authoritative parent can make a big difference (Fletcher et al 1999).

But what exactly sets the authoritative parenting style apart?How is it different from authoritarian parenting?How do experts decide if you’re an authoritative parent, or practicing someother parenting style? And why, exactly, do researchers think authoritativeness breeds success?

Here is an overview.

The authoritative parenting style: An evidence-based guide (1)

The authoritative parenting style: The original definition

The authoritative parenting style was first defined by Diane Baumrind, who proposed a new system for classifying parents. Her idea was to focus on the way parents attempted to control their kids(Baumrind 1966).

She recognized three major approaches to parental control:

  • Permissive parentsare reluctant to impose rules and standards, preferring to let their kids regulate themselves.
  • Authoritarian parentsdemand a sort of blind obedience from their children.
  • Authoritative parentstake a different, more moderate approach that emphasizes setting high standards, being nurturing and responsive, and showing respect for children as independent, rational beings. The authoritative parent expects maturity and cooperation, and offers children lots of emotional support.

So what’s the main difference between authoritative parenting from permissive parenting?


Like permissive parents, authoritative parents are responsive, nurturing, and involved. Butunlikepermissive parents, authoritative parentsdon’t let their kids get away with bad behavior.Authoritative parents take a firm stand, expecting their kids to behave responsibly.

And what’s the difference between authoritative and authoritarian parenting?

It’s all about the exercise of power.Think of the authoritarian parent as a drill sergeant. Do it now, or else!The drill sergeant tries to get his way through threats and coercion.

By contrast, the authoritative parent aims to inspire cooperation by fostering positive feelings, and teaching kids the reasons for the rules.

Authoritative parents communicate lots of warmth to their kids. They avoid using harsh or arbitrary punishments. They are less likely to shame their kids, or attempt to control kids by withdrawing love.

And when their children make mistakes or misbehave, they talk with them about it. They listen to their children’s concerns, and take them into account. They help kids figure out what went wrong,and explain the consequences of good and bad behavior.

So while they have similar-looking names, there is a big difference between authoritative and authoritarian parenting.

Authoritative parents aren’t just trying to enforce compliance. Theyrecognize and encourage a child’s sense of autonomy. They want kids to developself-discipline, maturity, and a respect for others. And they approach these goals by offering concrete advice and emotional support.

Summed up, some researchers have described it this way: Authoritative parents are highly demanding (like authoritarian parents), but they are also very responsive to their children’s needs (Maccoby and Martin 1983).

That’s the classic definition of the authoritative parenting style, and, using this definition, researchers have identified the authoritative parents throughout the world.

But not every authoritative parent runs his or her family the same way. There is some important variation, particularly when it comes to how much of a “vote” children get during family decision-making.

How do you practice authoritative parenting?

It’s one thing to read a definition, and another to put it into practice. How can you tell if you are acting like an authoritative parent?

(Video) 5 Parenting Styles and Their Effects on Life

When researchers want to identify an individual’s parenting style, they often use a kind of rubric or questionnaire. For example, theymay present a parent with a series of statements, and ask the parent to rate his or her agreement on a four-point scale (1= “almost never true”, 4 = “almost always true”).

Authoritative parents tend to agree with statements like these:

  • I take my child’s wishes and feelings into consideration before I ask her to do something
  • I encourage my child to talk about his feelings
  • I try to help when my child is scared or upset
  • I provide my child with reasons for the expectations I have for her
  • I respect my child’s opinion and encourage him or her to express them…even if they are different from my own

And parents are judged to be less authoritative if they agree with these statements:

  • I let my child get away with leaving chores unfinished
  • I bribe my child to get him to comply with my wishes
  • I explode in anger toward my child
  • I punish my child by withdrawing affection

So this is a good guide to follow. But authoritative parents are also good psychologists and problem-solvers. How do they talk with their kids? What tactics do they use to reason with children? How do they address their children’s emotional issues?

For help, see these evidence-based tips for implementing positive parenting practices.

But there isn’t any one, universally-accepted litmus test.

For example, the statements above might make it seem that you have to run your family like a mini-democracy in order to be authoritative. But that isn’t the case.

Or maybe you think that authoritative parenting sounds very strict. You might regard the statement about letting kids “get away with leaving chores unfinished” as evidence that authoritative parents must respond to every infraction by imposing a punishment.

Again, that’s not necessarily true.

As we’ll see below, the classic definition of authoritative parenting allows for variation in these areas. And different researchers have used different screening tools to decide who’s “authoritative.”

For instance, researchers in Spain have reported that adolescents from permissive families are as well-behaved and academically successful as are teens from authoritative homes. The results contradict studies that link permissive parenting with inferior child outcomes. Could cultural differences account for the mixed results? Are some studies just wrong?

Maybe. But as I’ve argued elsewhere, it seems likely that the disagreement reflects differences in the wording of the questionnaires used to identify a parent’s style.

Alfonso Osario and his colleagues recently tested this idea, and found support for it. Once Spanish adolescents were evaluated with the same questionnaire used in the United States, authoritative care-giving was linked with the best child outcomes (Osario et al 2016).

Does authoritative parenting look the same in every family?

Not necessarily. For example, when researchers surveyed parents in four different countries — China, the United States, Russia, and Australia– they found an interesting pattern.

In the U.S. and Australia, authoritative parents were very likely to emphasize certain democratic practices,like taking a child’s preferences into account when making family plans, or encouraging a child to express his or her own opinions (Robinson et al 1997).

But in China and Russia, authoritative parents didn’t take their children’s preferences into account when making family plans.And most authoritative parents from Chinadidn’tencourage kids to voice their own opinions — not if those opinions were in conflict with a parent’s views (Robinson et al 1996).

What, then, did authoritative parents have in common across all four countries?

One of the biggest common denominators concerned discipline.

Authoritative parents everywhere made it a point to reason with their children (Robinson et al 1997). When their children misbehaved, they talked with them, and explained the reasons for the rules. Let’s take a closer look.

How do authoritative parents discipline their kids?

It’s called“inductive discipline,” and there is evidence that it helps kids become more empathic, helpful, conscientious, and kind to others (Krevans and Gibbs 1996; Knafo and Plomin 2006).

It may also help prevent children from developing aggressive or defiant behavior problems (Choe et al 2013; Arsenio and Ramos-Marcuse 2014).

And inductive discipline may promote the development of morality (Patrick and Gibbs 2016).

But what is it, really? Inductive discipline is about teaching your child to think — constructively and non-selfishly — about how their behavior affects others.

(Video) Baumrind's Parenting Styles (Intro Psych Tutorial #181)

The idea is that instead of trying to enforce good behavior through threats and punishments, you provide kids with the internal tools to regulate themselves:

Shaping behavior through reasoning.

For a very young child, this might mean simply explaining why she can’t touch something. That’s not for you! It’s too hot! It could burn you! But for older kids, it means talking with them — not at them — about the reasons for our policies and rules.

Emotion coaching.

What should your child do when he feels angry? Or sad? Or scared? Inductive discipline depends on your child’s ability to cope with strong emotions, so one facet of inductive discipline is being a good “emotion coach.”Read tips about that here.

Emphasizing empathy and concern for others.

Inductive discipline focuses on the consequences of a child’s behavior for others. What happens when you shove your brother? How does it make him feel?

The goal of inductive discipline is to nurture a child’s intrinsic motivation to cooperate and behave with kindness (Xiao et al 2018; Xiao 2016).

Studies show that even very young children feel empathy, and want to be helpful. So we can help kids develop moral reasoning skills by talking with them about how our behavior impacts others. For more information, see these tips for fostering empathy in children.

Why do kids from authoritative families turn out so well?

The authoritative parenting style: An evidence-based guide (2)

Each component of the authoritative parenting style seems to have its own benefits.

As noted above, inductive discipline—explaining the reasons for rules—has been linked with more advanced moral reasoning skills (Krevans and Gibb 1996; Kerr et al 2004).

In addition, research suggests the following points.

1. Warm, responsive parenting promotes secure attachments, and protects kids from developing internalizing problems.

2. The children of authoritative parents are less likely than the children of authoritarian parents to engage in drug and alcohol use, juvenile delinquency, or other antisocial behavior (e.g., Lamborn et al 1991; Steinberg et al 1992; Querido et al 2002; Benchaya et al 2011; Luyckx et al 2011).

3. Talking with kids about thoughts and feelings may strengthen attachment relationships and make kids into better “mind readers.”

4. Parents who avoid reprimanding kids for intellectual mistakes (e.g., “I’m disappointed in you”) may have kids who are more resilient problem-solvers and better learners (Kamins and Dweck 1999; Schmittmann et al 2006; van Duijvenvoorde et al 2008).

5. Encouraging independence in kids is linked with more self-reliance, better problem solving, and improved emotional health (e.g., Turkel and Tezer 2008; Rothrauff et al 2009; Lamborn et al 1991; Pratt et al 1988; Kamins and Dweck 1999; Luyckx et al 2011).

6. An authoritative approach to discipline may help prevent aggression and reduce peer problems in preschoolers (e.g., Choe et al 2013; Yamagata 2013).

7. Kids with warm, responsive parents are more likely to be helpful, kind, and popular.

The last point is illustrated by research conducted in the Netherlands. In this study, school kids were observed at home as they worked with their parents on a couple of puzzle tasks. Then researchers

  • recorded how often parents uttered their disapproval or tried to take over the task,
  • rated how often parents showed warmth, made suggestions, used induction (“What would happen if we tried this?”), or demanded mature behavior from their kids, and
  • asked teachers and peers to rate each child’s social behavior.

The results are compelling. Parents who behaved more authoritatively during the puzzle task had kids who were rated as more prosocial—helpful and kind—by their teachers and peers. The kids with authoritative parents were also more popular (Dekovic and Janssens 1992).

There is even evidence that kids from authoritative homes are more attuned with their parents and less influenced by their peers.

In a study of American students, undergraduates were presented with a series of moral problems and asked how they would solve them. Students from authoritative families were more likely than others to say that their parents–not their peers–would influence their decisions (Bednar and Fisher 2003).

(Video) Authoritative parenting style

But there are other factors, too.

It’s likely that the benefits of authoritative child-rearing are maximized when the whole community is organized along authoritative principles. For instance, when the school climate is authoritative, kids from authoritative families may find it easier to fit in (Pellerin 2004).

In addition, some studies have reported ethnic differences–that for African-American and Chinese-Americans, there is sometimes little or no difference in academic performance between kids from authoritarian and authoritative homes.

Why? Researchers have posed several different explanations, which you can read about in this article that contrasts the effects of authoritarian parenting with the effects of authoritative parenting.

Nevertheless, there is remarkable agreement across studies. From Argentina to China, from the United States to Pakistan, the authoritative parenting style is consistently associated with superior outcomes (Steinberg 2001).

As researcher Laurence Steinberg has stated, “I know of no study that indicates that adolescents fare better when they are reared with some other parenting style” (Steinberg 2001).

As of 2017, that still seems to be the case. In a recent analysis of 428 published studies, researchers compared child outcomes throughout the world.

For every region of the globe, they found that the authoritative parenting style was associated with at least one positive child outcome (Pinquart and Kauser 2017). By contrast, authoritarian parenting was linked with at least one negative child outcome (Pinquart and Kauser 2017). The authors conclude that the authoritative approach is worth recommending everywhere.

More information about authoritative parenting

Looking for practical advice? See my evidence-based positive parenting techniques,as well as these tips for acting as your child’s “emotion coach.”

If you’re interested in reading more about how researchers identify parenting styles, check out this Parenting Science overview, which includes a discussion of Diane Baumrind’s original model.

For more information about the difference between authoritarianism and the authoritative parenting style, see my article,“Authoritarian parenting: What happens to the kids?”

And for help drawing the line between permissiveness and authoritative parenting, seethis Parenting Science article about the permissive parenting style.

Interested in the research supporting responsive, sensitive parenting? See my article about the health benefits, as well as my overview of the science of attachment parenting.

In addition, read more aboutthe importance of treating children as independent, thinking beings,and the possibility of friendship between parents and children.


Arsenio W and Ramos-Marcuse F. 2014. Children’s moral emotions, narratives, and aggression: relations with maternal discipline and support. J Genet Psychol. 175(5-6):528-46.

Baumrind D. 1966. Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child Development, 37(4), 887-907.

Baumrind D. 1991. The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence 11(1): 56-95.

Bednar DE and Fisher TD. 2003. Peer referencing in adolescent decision making as a function of perceived parenting style. Adolescence. 38(152):607-21.

Benchaya MC, Bisch NK, Moreira TC, Ferigolo M, and Barros HM. 2011. Non-authoritative parents and impact on drug use: the perception of adolescent children. J Pediatr (Rio J). 87(3):238-44

Chao R. 2001. Extending research on the consequences of parenting style for Chinese Americans and European Americans. Child Development 72: 1832-1843.

Choe DE, Olson SL, and Sameroff AJ. 2013. The interplay of externalizing problems and physical and inductive discipline during childhood. Dev Psychol. 49(11):2029-39.

Dekovic M and Janssens JM. 1992. Parents’ child: Rearing style and child’s sociometric status.” Developmental Psychology 28(5): 925-932.

Fletcher A, Steinberg L, and Sellers E. 1999. Adolescents’ well-being as a function of perceived inter-parent inconsistency. Journal of Marriage and the Family 61: 300-310.

(Video) Authoritative isn’t the best Parenting "Style"

Patrick RB and Gibbs JC. 2016. Maternal Acceptance: Its Contribution to Children’s Favorable Perceptions of Discipline and Moral Identity. J Genet Psychol. 177(3):73-84.

Kamins M and Dweck C. 1999. Person versus process praise and criticism:Implications for contingent self-worth and coping. Developmental Psychology 30(3): 835-847.

Kerr DC, Lopez NL, Olson SL, and Sameroff AJ. 2004. Parental Discipline and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Early Childhood: The Roles of Moral Regulation and Child Gender. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 32(4):369-83.

Knafo A and Plomin R. 2008. Prosocial behavior from early to middle childhood: genetic and environmental influences on stability and change. Developmental psychology 42(5):771-86.

Krevans J and Gibbs JC. 1996. Parents’ use of inductive discipline: relations to children’s empathy and prosocial behavior. Child Development, 67: 3263-77.

Lamborn SD, Mants NS, Steinberg L, and Dornbusch SM. 1991. Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Development 62: 1049-1065.

Luyckx K, Tildesley EA, Soenens B, Andrews JA, Hampson SE, Peterson M, and Duriez B. 2011. Parenting and trajectories of children’s maladaptive behaviors: a 12-year prospective community study. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 40(3):468-78.

Maccoby EE and Martin JA. 1983. Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (ed) and E. M. Hetherington (vol. ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed., pp. 1-101). New York: Wiley.

Osorio A and González-Cámara M. 2016. Testing the alleged superiority of the indulgent parenting style among Spanish adolescents. Psicothema. 28(4):414-420.

Pellerin LA. 2005. Applying Baumrind’s parenting typology to high schools: Toward a middle-range theory of authoritative socialization. Social Science Research 34: 283-303.

Pinquart M and Kauser R. 2017. Do the Associations of Parenting Styles With Behavior Problems and Academic Achievement Vary by Culture? Results From a Meta-Analysis. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2017 Apr 10. doi: 10.1037/cdp0000149. [Epub ahead of print]

Pratt MW, Kerig P, Cowan PA, and Cowan CP. 1988. Mothers and fathers teaching 3-year-olds: Authoritative parenting and adult scaffolding of young children’s learning. Developmental Psychology. Vol 24(6): 832-839.

Querido JG, Warner TD, and Eyberg SM. 2002. Parenting Styles and Child Behavior in African American Families of Preschool Children Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 31(2): 272 – 277.

Robinson CC, Mandleco BL, Olsen SF and Hart CH. 1995. Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Development of a new measure for parents of preschool-age children. Psychological Report77: 819-830.

Robinson CC, Hart CH, Mandleco BL, and Olsen SF. 1996. Psychometric support for a new measure of authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Cross cultural connections. Paper presented in Symposium: New measures of parental child-rearing practices developed in different cultural contexts, XIVth Biennial International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development Conference, Quebec City, Canada, August 12-16, 1996.

Rothrauff TC, Cooney TM, and An JS. 2009. Remembered parenting styles and adjustment in middle and late adulthood. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 64(1):137-46.

Steinberg L. 2001. We know some things: Parent-adolescent relationshgips in retrospect and prospect. Journal of research on adolescence 11(1): 1-19.

Türkel YD and Tezer E. 2008. Parenting styles and learned resourcefulness of Turkish adolescents. Adolescence. 43(169):143-52.

Xiao SX. 2016. Inductive Discipline and Children’s Prosocial Behavior: the Role of Parental Emotion Regulation Strategies. Dissertations ALL. Paper 507.

Xiao SX, Spinrad TL, Carter DB. 2018. Parental emotion regulation and preschoolers’ prosocial behavior: The mediating roles of parental warmth and inductive discipline. J Genet Psychol. 9:1-10

Yamagata S, Takahashi Y, Ozaki K, Fujisawa KK, Nonaka K, and Ando J. 2013. Bidirectional influences between maternal parenting and children’s peer problems: a longitudinal monozygotic twin difference study. Dev Sci. 16(2):249-59.

This article is based on research published through July 2017. Content last modified 7/17.

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What is authoritative style of parenting based on? ›

Authoritative. In this parenting style, the parents are nurturing, responsive, and supportive, yet set firm limits for their children. They attempt to control children's behavior by explaining rules, discussing, and reasoning. They listen to a child's viewpoint but don't always accept it.

What is the most effective parenting style based on evidence? ›

Why experts agree authoritative parenting is the most effective style. Studies have found that authoritative parents are more likely to raise confident kids who achieve academic success, have better social skills and are more capable at problem-solving.

What is the research about authoritative parenting? ›

Kids raised by authoritative parents are more likely to become independent, self-reliant, socially accepted, academically successful, and well-behaved. They are also less likely to report depression and anxiety, and less likely to engage in antisocial behavior like delinquency and drug use.

What is permissive parenting an evidence based guide? ›

The textbook definition of the permissive parenting style

Permissive parenting, sometimes called “indulgent parenting,” is a style of child-rearing that features two key traits: being nurturing and warm (which is good for kids), and. being reluctant to impose limits (which is problematic).

How does authoritative parenting affect children? ›

Effects of Authoritative Parenting

Research has repeatedly shown that children raised by authoritative parents tend to be more capable, happy, and successful. According to Baumrind, children of authoritative parents: Are self-confident about their abilities to learn new things. Develop good social skills.

What is an example of authoritative parenting style? ›

Examples of Authoritative Parenting

“[It] might look like taking your child's wants, needs, feelings into consideration, responding to your child if they are hurt or in need, providing physical touch and comfort to your child, and/or giving reasons for limits and consequences,” Schoonover offers.

What are the cons of authoritative parenting? ›

Cons of Authoritative Parenting

As they grow, kids go through normal phases of rebellion, anger, and apathy. These phases may be particularly difficult for authoritative parents, who naturally have high expectations of their children, and have tried hard to raise their kids in the best way possible.

What are evidence based practices in parenting? ›

Evidence-based parenting is making use of strategies that are demonstrated to be effictive by empirical research and are applied by caregiver in a way that supports the wellbeing of families and is in line with their values.

Which parenting style has been proven by research to produce the most positive results? ›

This work consistently demonstrated that youth of authoritative parents had the most favorable development outcomes; authoritarian and permissive parenting were associated with negative developmental outcomes; while outcomes for children of neglectful parents were poorest.

Why is authoritarian parenting the most effective? ›

Safety. Authoritarian parenting places a strong emphasis on safety—both emotional and physical—which minimizes the types of risky behavior a child may engage in. Children who grasp the outcome of a harmful action are more likely to stay away from it.

Are authoritative parents controlling? ›

Authoritative parents allow their kids to seek autonomy and independence. Instead of tight control, they closely monitor their children's behavior and correct them as needed. Studies show that parental monitoring substantially reduces a child's risk of antisocial behavior, delinquency, and drug abuse2.

Which parenting style is most encouraged in modern America? ›

Of the four parenting styles, the authoritative style is the one that is most encouraged in modern American society.

Is permissive or authoritative parenting better? ›

According to research published in 2012, children raised by authoritative parents have higher levels of self-esteem and quality of life than those raised by authoritarian or permissive parents.

What are the 4 types of parenting styles? ›

The four main parenting styles — permissive, authoritative, neglectful and authoritarian — used in child psychology today are based on the work of Diana Baumrind, a developmental psychologist, and Stanford researchers Eleanor Maccoby and John Martin.

Is permissive parenting neglect? ›

When you are raised by permissive parents, you are, by definition, being raised with Childhood Emotional Neglect, or CEN. Other kids, whose parents give them responsibilities and rules and enforce them, may think you have it made.

Do children with authoritative parents have high self-esteem? ›

Children of authoritative parents display high self-esteem and tend to be self-reliant, self- controlled, secure, popular and inquisitive ( Wennar, 1994). Children's trait and attitudes differ according to the parenting style used to raise them.

Do Authoritative parents have high expectations? ›

An authoritative parenting style is a child-rearing approach characterized by high responsiveness and high expectations. Authoritative parents are warm and responsive to their child's emotional needs while holding the child to high standards. They set limits and are very consistent in enforcing the boundaries.

What parenting styles cause low self-esteem? ›

Thus, this study shows that self-esteem is highest among students with authoritative parents and lowest among students with neglectful parents. It also shows that permissive parenting styles facilitate self-esteem more than authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles.

How does authoritative parenting affect personality? ›

Authoritative parenting has been linked to a number of positive outcomes in children, for example: secure parent-child attachment (7, 8), fewer behavior problems (9), more prosocial behaviors (10), and more positive peer relationships (11).

How does authoritative parenting affect relationships? ›

These parents carefully define limits for children, are good role models and praise children for their efforts. Parents in this category tend to develop close, nurturing relationships with their children as they provide clear, firm and consistent guidelines.

What is the most negative parenting style? ›

Physical abuse, neglect, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse are the most serious and damaging behavior traits that most of us equate with bad parenting. These are things that should be immediately addressed with professional help.

What are the long term effects of authoritative parenting? ›

These children learn how to make their own decisions, manage their time and emotions, and all-around tend to engage in more good behavior. These benefits also last into the long-term, with many research studies finding that authoritative parenting puts children on a path to success.

Can strict parents cause trauma? ›

Research has shown that any parenting style can affect everything about a child's mental and physical development, from weight to emotional well-being. So if you were raised in a strict home then it's important to realize that your physical and mental health may have suffered.

What are the 3 elements of evidence based practice? ›

Components of Evidence-Based Practice
  • Best Available Evidence. ...
  • Clinician's Knowledge and Skills. ...
  • Patient's Wants and Needs.

What is the best example of evidence based practice? ›

Through evidence-based practice, nurses have improved the care they deliver to patients. Key examples of evidence-based practice in nursing include: Giving oxygen to patients with COPD: Drawing on evidence to understand how to properly give oxygen to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

What are examples of evidence-based strategies? ›

An example of this includes questions such as, “What do you think you will really use?” and “What do you expect to learn from this lesson?” Applying retrieval strategies, using background knowledge, and activating prior learning. This helps assess where teachers need to begin instruction, reteach, and review.

Which parenting style most often results in the best outcomes for children? ›

Children raised with authoritative discipline tend to be happy and successful. They're also more likely to be good at making sound decisions and evaluating safety risks on their own.

Which type of parenting produces the most successful outcomes for a child? ›

Children who have authoritative parents tend to show the best outcomes (e.g., school success, good peer skills, high self-esteem). This is generally true across ages, ethnicities, social strata, and many cultures.

What are the statistics on authoritative parenting? ›

In the US, roughly 46% of parents use an authoritative parenting style, 26% authoritarian parenting style, 18% permissive parenting style, and 10% neglectful parenting style3.

Which are most likely the kind of children by authoritarian parents? ›

Children of: Authoritarian Parents. are often unhappy, fearful, withdrawn, inhibited, hostile and aggressive. They have low self-esteem and difficulty with peers.

Do children of authoritarian parents do well in school? ›

For instance, several studies conducted in the United States have found that the authoritarian parenting style was linked with lower school grades for all ethnic groups (Dornbusch et al 1987; Steinberg et al 1989; Steinberg et al 1992), though it appears that the effects may be less negative for Hispanic children than ...

What is 123 magic method? ›

1-2-3 Magic divides the parenting responsibilities into three straightforward tasks: controlling negative behavior, encouraging good behavior, and strengthening the child-parent relationship. The program seeks to encourage gentle, but firm, discipline without arguing, yelling, or spanking.

Are authoritarian parents narcissists? ›

Narcissistic parents are often authoritarian and can dominate their children, resulting in a sense that they will be punished for taking action on their own behalf.

What parenting styles cause anxiety? ›

Children and adolescents with anxiety disorders are more likely to be raised by non-authoritative parents (e.g. overprotective, authoritarian, and neglectful styles), who tend to employ exaggerated (e.g. preventing autonomy), harsh, or inconsistent control.

How do authoritarian parents punish? ›

As an authoritarian parent, you focus more on obedience, discipline, control rather than nurturing your child. Mistakes tend to be punished harshly and when feedback does occur, it's often negative. Yelling and corporal punishment are also common.

What is the most common parenting style in the world? ›

The authoritative parenting style is the most common parenting style and the majority of the parents adopt mixed parenting styles.

What is the most traditional form of parenting? ›

Authoritarian Parenting

It's the most traditional style because parents are clearly in charge and children are expected to fall in line no matter what. On the plus side, kids whose parents take an authoritarian approach know exactly where the boundaries are and what the consequences of violating them will be.

What is the best parenting style in an individualistic society? ›

Rudy & Grusec (2006) states, “In individualist contexts, authoritative parenting, with its emphasis on negotiation and responsiveness to children's input, may be appropriate” (p.

At what age does parenting get easier? ›

They become quite independent as they reach 5-6 years of age, even wanting to help you with some of the chores! This is probably why most parents look at age 6 as the magical age when parenting gets easier.

Why is authoritative parenting better than authoritarian? ›

Studies have shown that children with authoritarian parents experience decreased self-esteem, anxiety, and aggressive behaviors. On the other hand, studies have shown that children raised by authoritative parents have stronger social and emotional skills, as well as better overall mental health.

What are the three C's of parenting? ›

Parenting: The 3 C's – Consistency, Care, Communication.

What are the four C's of parenting? ›

The 4C's are principles for parenting (Care, Consistency, Choices, and Consequences) that help satisfy childrens' psychological, physical, social, and intellectual needs and lay solid foundations for mental well-being.

How does authoritative parenting affect the child? ›

A 2015 study found that an authoritative parenting style might boost creativity in children. A 2020 study found that authoritative parenting led to higher life satisfaction in young people between ages 14 and 29. A 2021 study suggested that it could have a positive impact on self-esteem and problem-solving skills.

What parenting style is no discipline? ›

A fourth parenting style—“uninvolved” parenting—is a bit like permissive parenting in that parents don't enforce strict rules or standards of conduct. But the resemblance ends there. Permissive parents are warm and nurturing. Uninvolved parents are detached and emotionally disengaged (Maccoby and Martin 1983).

What does emotional neglect in childhood look like? ›

From a developmental psychology perspective, childhood emotional neglect—or CEN—is the result of chronic unavailability of parents in a child's life. Kids can experience abandonment, distress, and aloofness, because of not having their parents being actively present in their lives.

What determines a parenting style? ›

These characteristics include a parent's age, gender identity, personality, developmental history, beliefs, knowledge about parenting and child development, and mental and physical health. Parents' personalities also affect parenting behaviors.

What is authoritative parenting quizlet? ›

Authoritative parents. establish rules and guidelines that their children are expected to follow. However, this parenting style is much more democratic. Authoritative parents are responsive to their children and willing to listen to questions.

What is authoritarian parenting style in psychology? ›

Authoritarian parenting is an extremely strict parenting style. It places high expectations on children with little responsiveness. As an authoritarian parent, you focus more on obedience, discipline, control rather than nurturing your child.

What are 4 of the characteristics of an authoritarian parenting style? ›

Authoritarian parents display high levels of demandingness and low levels of responsiveness, tending to make rules and set high expectations but lack warmth and support. Authoritarian parents tend to “rule with an iron fist.” They are often described as strict, demanding, cold, critical, and punitive.

What is the most common parenting style in America? ›

The authoritative parenting style is the most common parenting style and the majority of the parents adopt mixed parenting styles.

What parenting style has no rules? ›

Permissive parenting, also known as the indulgent parenting style, is a parenting style characterized by high responsiveness and low demandingness. Permissive-indulgent parents are very responsive to their child's emotional needs. But they don't set limits or are very inconsistent in enforcing boundaries.

Is Authoritative parenting strict? ›

Authoritative parents are strict and warm, while authoritarian parents are strict and cold. Authoritative parents discuss and explain rules to their children. They are open to give-and-take discussions and will modify rules if appropriate. Children are taught to think critically about the reasons behind each rule.

Is authoritarian parenting abusive? ›

Authoritarian parents can skew into abuse through emotional and psychological damage to kids in the household.

What are authoritarian parents most likely to be? ›

Parents with this style often seem cold, aloof, and harsh. They are more likely to nag or yell at their children than offer encouragement and praise. They value discipline over fun and expect that children should be seen and not heard.

What is the most effective style of discipline? ›

The most powerful tool for effective discipline is attention—to reinforce good behaviors and discourage others. Remember, all children want their parent's attention. Catch them being good. Children need to know when they do something bad--and when they do something good.

Why strict parenting doesn t work? ›

Strict parenting deprives kids of the opportunity to internalize self-discipline and responsibility. Harsh limits may temporarily control behavior, but they don't help a child learn to self-regulate. Instead, harsh limits trigger a resistance to taking responsibility for themselves.


1. Ep #165: Parenting styles and why our evidence-based skills work
(ADHD Smarter Parenting)
2. The Essence of Terrible Parenting | Stephanie Davies-Arai | EP 316
(Jordan B Peterson)
3. Dr. Diana Baumrind, Authoritative Parenting and the Parenting Styles matrix.
4. What Is Authoritative Parenting? | Tita TV
(Tita TV)
5. Know Your Parenting Style Part 3 - Authoritative Parenting
(Dr Solomon's Wisdom)
6. Parenting Styles have Outcomes and Authoritarian Parenting can lead to Abuse | TGT
(Zena & Poppy: Wholesome Degenerates)
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